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PH605: Thermal and Statistical Physics 2 PH605 Thermal and Statistical Physics M.J.D. Mallett P. Blmler Recommended text books: � Finn C.B.P.: � AdkinsC.J.: � Mandl F: Thermal Physics Equilibrium Thermodynamics Statistical Physics THERMODYNAMICS ..................................................................................................... 4 Review of Zeroth, First, Second and Third Laws ................................................... 4 Thermodynamics ................................................................................................ 4 The zeroth law of thermodynamics,. .................................................................. 4 Temperature, T ................................................................................................... 4 Heat, Q ............................................................................................................... 4 Work, W ............................................................................................................. 4 Internal energy, U .............................................................................................. 5 The first law of thermodynamics ....................................................................... 5 Isothermal and Adiabatic Expansion ................................................................. 6 Heat Capacity ..................................................................................................... 6 Heat capacity at constant volume, Cv ................................................................ 7 Heat capacity at constant pressure, Cp ............................................................... 7 Relationship between Cv and Cp ....................................................................... 8 The second law of thermodynamics .................................................................. 8 Heat Engines ...................................................................................................... 9 Efficiency of a heat engine .............................................................................. 10 The Carnot Cycle ............................................................................................. 11 The Otto Cycle ................................................................................................. 13 Concept of Entropy: relation to disorder ............................................................ 15 The definition of Entropy ................................................................................. 16 Entropy related to heat capacity ....................................................................... 16 The entropy of a rubber band ........................................................................... 17 The third law of thermodynamics .................................................................... 18 The central equation of thermodynamics ......................................................... 18 The entropy of an ideal gas .............................................................................. 18 Thermodynamic Potentials: internal energy, enthalpy, Helmholtz and Gibbs functions, chemical potential ............................................................................... 19 Internal energy ................................................................................................. 20 Enthalpy ........................................................................................................... 20 Helmholtz free energy ...................................................................................... 20 Gibbs free energy ............................................................................................. 21 Useful work ...................................................................................................... 21 Chemical Potential ........................................................................................... 22 The state functions in terms of each other ....................................................... 22 Differential relationships: the Maxwell relations ............................................... 23 Maxwell relation from U ................................................................................. 23 Maxwell relation from H ................................................................................. 24 Maxwell relation from F .................................................................................. 24 Maxwell relation from G ................................................................................. 25 Use of the Maxwell Relations .......................................................................... 26 Applications to simple systems ............................................................................. 26 The thermodynamic derivation of Stefan s Law ............................................. 27 Equilibrium conditions: phase changes .............................................................. 28 Phase changes .................................................................................................. 28 P-T Diagrams ................................................................................................... 29 PVT Surface ..................................................................................................... 29 First-Order phase change ................................................................................. 30 Second-Order phase change ............................................................................. 31 M. J. D. Mallett,ukc.ac.uk 14 02 2001